• The maximum fishing threshold for
overfishing is being approached
• Overfishing is occurring (i.e., the
level of fishing has exceeded the
level that produces MSY)
• The minimum fish population
(biomass) threshold that will
produce MSY is being approached
• A fish population is overfished (i.e.,
the mass of fish has dropped below
the level needed to produce MSY)
• Adequate progress has not
been made in correcting previously
identified overfishing issues.
Is seafood sustainable when
overfishing is occurring?
• YES. If we “do the right thing.”
By taking corrective management
action to reduce harvesting (eliminate
overfishing), the fish population
can continue to renew itself and the
harvest can remain a sustainable
seafood over time.
• NO. If we fail to “do the right thing.”
If appropriate corrective action is
not taken, then the fish population
will continue a downward trajectory
toward becoming “overfished.”
Is seafood sustainable when it comes
from an overfished population?
• NO. “Overfished” means a fish
population can no longer fully renew
itself because too many losses from
fishing and natural factors outweigh
gains from the addition of young fish.
Immediate corrective management
action is needed to eliminate
overfishing, and rebuild the fish
population before (and if) sustainable
fish catch and catch rates can
Langley, A., J. Hampton, P. Kleiber and S.
Hoyle. 2008. Stock assessment of bigeye
tuna in the western and central Pacific
Ocean, including an analysis of manage-
ment options. SA-WP-1,
Meetings, Scientific Committee,
4th regular session, 11-22 August 2008,
Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Tuna, Pacific Albacore Tuna, FishWatch,
U.S. Seafood Facts,
Plenary Report, ISC July 2008 meeting.
Next full assessment for North Pacific
albacore will be conducted in 2009.
Pacific Swordfish, FishWatch, U.S. Seafood
Kleiber, P. and K. Yokawa. 2004.
MULTIFAN-CL assessment of swordfish
in the North Pacific. SWO-WG WP-7, ISC4,
Honolulu, HI, 26 January–4 February 2004.
Kleiber, P., M.G. Hinton and Y. Uozumi.
2003. Stock assessment of blue marlin
(Makaira nigricans) in the Pacific using
MULTIFAN-CL. Marine and Freshwater
Research, 54: 349-360.
Brodziak, J. and K. Piner. 2008. Maximum
sustainable yield-based reference points
for North Pacific striped marlin, Tetrapturus
Scientific Committee, 4th Regular Session,
11-22 August, 2008, Port Moresby, Papua
New Guinea. Information Papers GN IP-8.
Seki, M.P., D.R. Hawn and R.N. Nishimoto.
2002. Investigating the life history of opah
and monchong in the North Pacific. NOAA
Fisheries, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science
IATTC 2009. Resolution C-09-01.
Resolution on a multiannual program for
the conservation of tuna in the eastern
Pacific Ocean in 2009-2001. 80th Meeting
IATTC, June 8-12, 2009, La Jolla, California.
NOAA 2009. International Fisheries;
Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for
Highly Migratory Species; Bigeye tuna
Catch Limits in Longline Fisheries in 2009,
2010 and 2011. 50 CFR Part 300, Federal
Register vol.74, No. 129. July 8, 2009
NOAA observer with barracuda
(continued from p. 13)
“Do the Right Thing”
(continued from p. 12)
Photo: NOAA Observer Program